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How Does Electricity Get To My Home?

How Does Electricity Get To Your Home | Am Transformers

Our daily lives are constantly affected by this fantastic invention and we will forever owe the person who discovered it.

I hear you ask now ‘who created electricity’. The history of electricity dates back to 2750 BCE where the ancient Egyptians were aware of ‘shocks’ from ‘Electric Fish’ which was aptly named ‘The Thunderer of the Nile’.

Benjamin Franklin was really the pioneer of electricity being discovered and then created. We’ve all heard of Franklin’s famous ‘Kite Experiment’ in which he flew a kite in the sky to prove electricity existed in the form of lightning. Indeed the lightning struck the kite and as Franklin had attached a metal key to the end of the kite the electricity was able to flow to it. Thus giving him a big shock! This was in 1752.

Scientists then studied electricity and its forms for hundreds of years, many people pioneering new projects that thrived off electricity. Thomas Edison creating the first light bulb in 1879.

How Is Electricity Created?

The creation of electricity is no mean feat at all. It requires control and a very high attention to detail. The slightest mishap could result in disaster. The main way to create electricity is through the burning of fossil fuels. The result of this is steam. This steam powers a huge turbine which then spins a huge magnet inside of a copper wire coil. Creating heat energy.

This heat energy converts to mechanical energy which then converts to electrical energy through the use of a generator. Now they have this energy ready they have to now distribute it in a controlled and safe way. It now flows from the power plant through rather large and lengthy power lines. The way it does this is through the use of a transformer. It raises the pressure of the electricity so it can flow quickly through the power lines. At its highest it can reach 756,000 volts(this is extremely high and would reduce any thing in it’s path to dust).

The next step is a substation. These are the small gated stations that contain smaller transformers which step down the voltage to between 2000 – 13,000 dependent on the distribution area. This electricity is then ready to be sent to your home and light up your house, power your tv’s and charge your phones. It is sent underground as this is the safest way of distribution – entering a transformer box which now converts the electricity to in the region of 120 and 240 volts. This is still quite high and will hurt when passing through your body. From here the electricity is distributed through a meter which records your uses and sends information to the provider. Thus you receiving a bill every quarter. It is then distributed throughout the house to lights, appliances, sockets etc.

Below you’ll see a diagram showing the simplified process.

How Electricity Get's Into Your Home | Am Transformers

Tips for Installing Transformers

Leading Supplier Of Custom Transformers | Am Transformers

Transformer InstallationIt all begins with purchasing high quality products. Ensure that you partner with reliable single or 3 phase transformer manufacturers that adhere to strict quality standards.

Here are some more tips to ensure that your transformer gets installed smoothly and gives you several years of service.

Strictly Adhere to Manufacturer Guidelines

A transformer can be installed in several ways, depending on the purpose. For example, you may want to install it at ground level; on a concrete pad; or outside, inside or on top of a facility. You need to be aware of, and implement, safety precautions as specified by the manufacturer for each type of installation.

Ground installation, for instance, would require you to study the soil type beforehand to assess its suitability to accommodate the transformer. Installing a transformer without this preliminary study can lead to equipment damage, poor performance, and weak and risky electrical connections.

Similarly, be sure to study the structural strength of the facility if you intend to install the transformer inside the premises. If the facility is in a seismic region, precautionary steps must be taken to ensure that the equipment doesn’t result in loss of life during earthquakes.

Inspect Transformer Immediately after Delivery

Check for obvious damages that could be caused due to transportation or negligent handling. File a complaint with the transportation company if you encounter signs of equipment mishandling. Inform the manufacturer about the damage simultaneously.

After this initial inspection, remove the external cover to examine the unit from inside. Check for damage such as broken parts, and loose connections. Be sure to also check for contaminants like water, dirt and moisture.

If the transformer is not going to be installed immediately, perform another round of the above inspection, just before installation.

Considering the above risks, it is important to choose reputed single and 3 phase transformer manufacturers, dealers and transportation experts.

Check Transformer Sound Level
A power transformer’s core generates sound of at least 120Hz level (think of live music in a disco). In some units, the sound could be way higher.

Depending on the surroundings, the sound may be audible or could go unnoticed. For example, in a quiet room, the sound is more pronounced than in a location with multiple equipments like motors and compressors.

Some applications demand absolute silence in which case a sound-reduction system corresponding to the frequency generated can be installed.

Follow Essential Precautions before Setting the Transformer Live

Ensure that grounding is in place. Grounding eliminates static charges, if any. It also protects against risks such as an accidental contact between transformer winding and its core.

Follow protection requirements specified by the manufacturer if aluminium conductors are involved.

Employ only qualified technicians with experience in handling high-voltage equipment to install conductors.

Do not install washers between bus bar and terminal lug. This presents the risk of connection overheating.

Adhere to space requirements specified by manufacturers for installing cables. Do not install them adjacent to coils or blades.

Ensure that there are no breaks or gaps in windings.

Perform an insulation resistance test to assess transformer’s capability to accept applied voltage.

Conduct a final inspection of the transformer before sending it live. Inform all people involved in transformer installation before energizing the unit.

AM Transformers – Your Trusted Partner in Quality Transformers

AM Transformers is known for high quality transformers across the UK. We are single and 3 phase transformer manufacturers and suppliers with over 20 years of industry experience. We deal in transformers of all types, and can supply a quality unit specific to your application. All our products conform to UK and global safety standards.

Single Phase Vs 3 Phase Transformer

What Is A 3 Phase Transformer | Am Transformers

Household applications, for example, require low voltage. In this case, transformers convert high voltage to low voltage suitable for powering a television or running a washing machine.

Industries and manufacturing plants demand voltages several times higher than that of domestic applications. Transformers cater to the heavy voltage needs of such commercial applications as well.

Going for reliable single phase or 3 phase transformer suppliers gives you the benefit of a long-lasting device and best value for your money.

Basic Working Principle of a Transformer

An insight into the basic working method of a transformer enables easier understanding of a single- and three-phase transformer.

When current of a variable nature is passed through a wire, it creates a magnetic field in its surrounding area. The strength of the magnetic field is directly proportional to the amount of current flow. The greater the amount of current, the stronger is the magnetic field.

When a second wire is placed adjacent to this magnetic field, current is generated in this wire. The current flowing through the first wire is referred to as primary current while the one generated in the second is known as secondary current.

Since current in the second wire is induced by a magnetic field created by the first, this whole process is termed electromagnetic induction. For more efficient production of current, coils of wire wound around a “core” (an iron bar) are used.

A transformer features such coils to deliver the desired voltage. It uses the number of turns in the coil for voltage conversion. If the number of turns in the second coil is greater or lesser than that in the first coil, the current and voltage in the second coil vary accordingly.

As this process calls for the current to have a variable nature, only Alternating Current (AC) is used with transformers.

What are Single Phase Transformers?

In a single phase transformer, a single pair of coil is used. There is one primary coil and one secondary coil to produce desired voltage. A single phase transformer is a step-down transformer, which means it converts high voltage into low voltage. It is typically used for residential requirements, and office set ups.

Single phase transformers are preferred for domestic and lighter commercial purposes for two key reasons – low cost and lower electrical energy input requirement.

What are 3 Phase Transformers?

What Area 3 Phase TransformersWell-known for their efficiency to cater to heavy-duty applications, three phase transformers employ 3 coils, each separated from the other by an angular difference of 1200, to generate the required voltage.

3 phase transformers are highly preferred for heavy industrial applications. Industrial equipment functions smoothly as these transformers have the ability to transmit the necessary voltage over long distances with only a small conductor. It is also possible to incorporate a single phase within a 3 phase transformer, employing any one of the 3 phases.

Original products from reputed 3 phase transformer suppliers deliver multiple benefits including compactness, greater power generation efficiency, and cost-efficiency. The more compact a transformer, the easier the installation and transportation, which further results in substantial cost savings.

Experience True Quality with AM Transformers

AM Transformers are a trusted single and 3 phase transformer suppliers across UK for over 20 years. We build and supply quality transformers that strictly adhere to UK safety standards. We can deliver any type of transformer specific to your purpose. We have an expert technical support team to guide you with the products, before and after sales.

Transformer Installation

Industrial Transformer Installation | AM Transformers

Think AM Transformers and you will not have to worry about installing transformers ever again. Here are some transformer installation essentials you must be aware about.

Why You Need Transformers?

The AC (Alternating Current) system requires voltage to be raised or lowered throughout the power supply system to make it safe and efficient. Transformers are needed just for this purpose.

How Transformers Work?

Any transformer consists of two sets of coils or windings. Each set of winding is called an inductor. The AC voltage is applied to one of the windings, called the primary winding. The secondary winding is the other set of coils that is located in close vicinity to the primary winding but is electrically isolated from it.

The AC flowing through the primary winding establishes a time-varying magnetic flux and some of this links to the secondary winding. This process induces a voltage across the second winding.

Transformer Types

There are three main types of transformers depending upon their construction and usage. They are three-phase transformers, auto transformers and special transformers.

Which Transformer Is Best For You?

For a new office that needs lighting, a receptacle for the coffeepot and the computer terminal, you will need a 3kVa transformer. This means a 277V single-phase to 120 V, 2 wire transformer is required.

Connecting the Basics

Before you start any installation, refer to the supplier’s instructions. A better idea will be to call the professional installation experts. Since most connections of the transformers, including AM Transformers are application-specific, it is important to understand the basics before energizing any connection.

Inside the junction box, there are two connections “H” and “X”. The “H” connections denote the higher-voltage windings of the transformer and the “X” connections are the lower-voltage windings.

The model also has two 21/2% FCBN taps to help maintain the 120V. You can add insulating materials such as caps or splicing tape to the pigtail leads that splice into wiring from the raceways with the help of ring-terminal crimp lugs and machine screws.

It is recommended that you install a 10A dual-element fuse in a spare single-pole switch in 480Y/277V lighting panel on the opposite wall of the premises. In order to minimize voltage drop, it is also recommended that you install the transformer nearest the load end of the circuit.

Additional transformers

Sometimes for a packaging assembly, additional transformers are required. Connections to this type of transformer are usually basic-three wires that are connected into the high side (H1, H2, H3) and three wires to the low side (X1, X2 and X3)

Equipment Grounding

Another important factor you must consider is provision of equipment grounding. Talk to your AM Transformers supplier about the right location of setting up the equipment grounding.

Call the Professionals

Installing a transformer is no child’s play. It requires a high level of expertise and experience. More than that, the installation also needs some study and research into the requirements.

Before you install a transformer for your office or warehouse, you need to study the exact requirement, usage and of course power capacity. For doing this kind of study, it is always better to call professional transformer suppliers and technicians.

After a feasibility and requirement analysis, the expert technicians can guide you well about the entire installation process. If high-end technical jargon is not really understood by you, you should always get all your doubts clarified from the installation services team.

Your transformer supplier will also help you with after sales services for the transformer as and when required.

Top 10 Voltage Optimisation Tips

Industrial Transformer Voltage Optimisation | AM Transformers

On one hand, is the need to manage resources well for optimum utilisation and on the other hand, we also need to follow the government’s directives regarding carbon reduction. Power management and energy efficiency are almost required on a daily basis from building owners and operators. Voltage optimisation is your best bet in such a situation.

Understanding voltage optimisation

Before you discuss how to use optimisers, you need to understand why you need voltage optimisation in the first place. Energy efficiency can be gained not just by utilising available power suitably but also by making sure the energy is distributed properly.

Voltage optimisation is, therefore, an unobtrusive yet highly effective way for achieving energy efficiency. Here are top 10 voltage optimisation tips.

Design and Analysis

Not all applications are suitable to technology. Before you set up your site, it is important to consider what applications you will be using and how power will be needed and supplied to them.

Your voltage optimisation provider will conduct a survey to determine energy audits, voltage logging, network analysis and full voltage to understand how voltage optimisation can benefit you.

Choose a Reputable Voltage Optimisation Supplier

Even as you start working on adopting voltage optimisation methods and determine which voltage optimisers to buy, you need to make sure that you have a supplier whose credentials are worthy and give you only quality products. Choose performance and quality over price.

It is important to choose a supplier who not just gives you the best offer for your applications, but also gives you complete energy management solutions. Your supplier must be able to provide excellent service, maintenance and consultancy whenever required.

Assess the Electricity Costs

Before you install voltage optimisers, it is a good idea to assess the electricity costs including installation, consumption, carbon emission savings, potential maintenance and savings. Re-evaluating and re-negotiating your energy bills with your service provider can be a good thing to do at this point.

Measure Operational Benefits

Before you implement voltage optimisation, it is necessary to apply IPMVP principals and measure the operational benefits of voltage optimisation for your project or building. IPMVP or International Performance Measurement & Verification Process conforms to international standards and is used for studying energy efficiency projects.

Always Calculate Total Costs

It is important to consider the total costs for voltage optimisation including material, installation, services required and commissioning before the purchase. You also need to include maintenance and servicing. Operational fees as well as disposal earnings need to be considered.

Consider Combining with Other Energy Saving Measures

You can consider energy saving measures by using alternative energy sources in combination with using voltage optimisers. Research the industry and other similar buildings and services and you could get to save a lot of money and energy.

Consider Location

The location for the voltage optimisers in your building or work premises can actually save a lot of money for you. Your system designer or local electrical contractor can help you to decide where you must do the installation.

Use a Voltage Optimisation Calculator

It is possible to find out how you can maximize your savings and achieve energy efficiency at the same time. Use an online voltage optimization calculator to work out your costs.

Invest in Monitoring Solutions

A comprehensive monitoring solution can tell you where, when and how energy is being consumed within a project or building. You can plan the energy use accordingly.

Regular Voltage Optimiser Maintenance

Finally, you need to make sure your voltage optimisation supplier is someone who will give you regular and up-to-date service and maintenance for your voltage optimisers.

Most Common Types of Power Transformers

Most Common Industrial Transformer Types | Am Transformers

A Look at Transformer Manufacturing Process

It involves many stages and many components. Also, there are various types of transformers ranging from Three phase transformers, chassis mounted transformers to auto-transformers and step-down transformers, depending upon the requirement. Here is a look at the transformer manufacturing process.

The most common types of power transformers include GSU (Generator Set-up), Auto-Transformers and Step-down Transformers. Each of these types has variations depending upon power capacity.

Manufacturing Process in a Nutshell

The transformer manufacturing process is a step-by-step process that involves important stages. They are 

  • Core Construction
  • Insulation
  • Windings
  • Core and coil
  • Processing
  • Tanks
  • Testing
  • Core Construction

Core dimensions for the transformer are determined. Core stacking takes place which is then followed by core cutting process. The uncut slit rolls of steel or pre-cut rolls of steel are stacked and cut according to the core design.

The core is fully metered and step lapped in corner joints to improve flux distribution and to minimize loss and sound levels. The circular core shape is meant to provide windings with optimum radial support.

Core stacking follows with the help of temporary bolt guides. Single and three phase units require 2,3,4 and 5 leg cores. Oil ducts are used to control rise in temperature. Temporary, permanent or combination of banding is introduced at this stage.

Coil Winding Transformers

The coil winding room is usually a separate area located away from other manufacturing areas. Positive pressure is used to work the horizontal or vertical winding mandrels. The conductor used is either copper magnetic wire or continuously transposed conductor. Circular concentric windings are usually preferred for most transformers. The winding type is chosen according to voltage and application. The most common types are helical, interleaved disc, continuous disc and others.

Transformer Insulation

The insulation area is also separate from the other manufacturing areas for chassis mounted transformers as well as other transformers. The winding insulation cylinders and spacers are made from high density pressboard. Coil sizing force is first applied to check and adjust the winding height. Complete winding insulation packages are introduced at this stage.

Coil and Core Assembly Transformers

Coil assembly starts by taking into account the winding type, conductor type and the insulation components.

The exposed edges of the core are bonded together with low viscosity, high strength epoxy resin. This adhesive penetrates and bonds the laminations. Prefabricated oil is placed on the bottom clamps to clamp insulation into place.

The coils are lowered over the core. The top coil clamps the insulation after which the top clamps are fixed into place. The top core is then inserted to form the final base structure.

The lead braising process takes place. The windings are clamped with external or internal tie rods. This provides them with additional support for axial forces. The leads and busbars are given additional support so they can withstand forces that arise from shipping and short circuits. The assembly is then moved on air cushions.

Lead Connection and Vapour Phase

Lead connections are then completed and the assembly goes on to the next stage involving the vapour phase unit. Here the entire core and coil assembly is now dried using a vapour phase cycle technique.

Tank and Tank Covers

The next process involves grit-blasting the tanks for cleaning, priming and painting the tanks. The insides are usually painted white for better visibility. The tank covers that have been designed with raised flanges to prevent water collection and made from high quality steel plate are cut using an automated waterbed plasma cutter.

Repacking and Tanking

Final hydraulic clamping is the next stage in the chassis mounted transformers manufacturing process.

Final Assembly

The final assembly with installation of conservator, radiators, pumps and fans is now completed. The unit is then sent for testing.